Glossary

Glossary of Special Education Terms

Accommodations: Changes that allow a person with a disability to participate fully in an activity. Examples include extended time, different test format, and altercations to a classroom.

Adapted physical Education (APE); Specially designed physical education program, using accommodations designed to fit the needs of students who require developmental or corrective instruction in PE.

ADD/ADHD: Attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are medical conditions characterized by a child’s inability to focus, while processing impulsivity, fidgeting and inattention.

Adequate Yearly Progress: The degree of progress for children in academic areas established by the State Education Agency.

Advocate: An individual who represents or speaks on behalf of another person’s interests (as in a parent with his/her child).

American Sign Language (ASL): A method of communicating by using hand signs. Each sign represents either one word or a concept that is typically expressed with several spoken words. For words that do not have a sign, finger spelling is used.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA): The national professional association for speech and language therapists and audiologists.

Americans with Disabilities Coordinator. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act: A federal law that protects the civil rights of individuals with disabilities. This law is closely intertwined with IDEA. Children with disabilities who are not eligible for special education may qualify for accommodations under Section 504 if they meet the 504 eligibility criteria. Section 619: Authorizing section of Part B of IDEA that requires States to provide preschool services to children with disabilities, ages three to five.

Annual Performance Report: The report that is submitted by each State to the U.S. Department of Education that provides data and information on compliance and results of special education for children with disabilities.

Aphasia: A communication disorder characterized by difficulty with producing language and/or with under- standing language

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): is the scientific use of the principles of behavior (i.e., what we know about behavior) to increase desired behaviors or decrease problem behaviors in children.

Approved Private School:  An Approved Private School (APS) is a private school that is licensed by the State Board of Private Academic Schools or Pennsylvania Charter Schools. APSs are eligible to receive funds from school districts and/or the commonwealth for the education of students with severe disabilities.

American with Disabilities Act (ADA): A civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in the areas of accessibility, employment, public services, public accommodations, transportation, and communication

Assessment or Evaluation: Term used to describe the testing and diagnostic processes leading up to the development of an appropriate IEP for a student with special education needs.

Assistive Technology (AT) Device: A piece of equipment or product that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the way a child with a disability interacts and communi­cates with the world around them. This does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted or the replacement of such a device.

Assistive Technology (AT) Services: Services to help a child with a disability use an assistive technology device. These services include evaluating the needs of the child; providing the device; and then training the child, the child’s family, and the professionals who work with that child in the use of the device.

Autism (AU): A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction.

Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Developmental disabilities that share many of the same characteristics. Usually evident at age three, autism and PDD are neurological disorders that affect a child’s ability to communicate, understand language, play, and relate to others.

Basic Education Circular (BEC): is an official document used by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to communicate with school districts regarding policy. Unless adopted and published in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, BECs are only informational and advisory and are not binding on local school districts. BECs can be accessed online at www.education.state.pa.us.

Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP): Special education term used to describe the written plan used to address problem behavior that includes positive behavioral interventions, strategies and support. May include program modifications and supplementary aids and services.

Behavior Specialist Consultant (BSC): is an individual who assists in the development of a treatment plan and works collaboratively with a team to closely monitor a child’s progress and make any necessary adjustments or changes to the treatment plan.

Chapter 14: The state law pertaining to the delivery of special education services and programs. It is called “regulations” or is sometimes called “rules.”

Charter School: is an independent public school established and operated under a charter from the local board of school directors. A charter school must be organized as a public, nonprofit corporation and may not be granted to any for-profit entity

Cyber Charter School: is an independent public school established and operated under a charter from the Department of Education. Cyber schools deliver the majority of their instruction over the internet or by electronic means. A cyber charter school must be organized as a public, nonprofit corporation and may not be granted to any for-profit entity.

Child With a Disability: A child evaluated as having an intellectual disability, a hearing impairment including deafness, a speech or language impairment, a visual impairment including blindness, emotional disturbance, an orthopedic impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, a specific learning disability, deaf-blindness, or multiple disabilities, and who, as a result of the disability, needs special education and related services.

Child Find (CF):   A required federal program that requires States to actively locate children, birth to age 21, with developmental disabilities or who are at risk for developmental disabilities. It particularly focuses on children not enrolled in school programs.

Cognitive Delay (CD): A disability where a child’s intellectual and adaptive behavior is below average and impacts the child’s education.

Consent: Written parent permission before initial evaluation and placement in special education.

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC): The largest international professional organization dedicated to improving educational outcomes for individuals with exceptionalities, students with disabilities, and/or the gifted.

Comprehensive Educational Evaluation: The evaluations and observations done by the school staff to find out if the child has a disability and requires special education and related services. The school’s multi-disciplinary team is required to do this evaluation and hold a meeting with the parent to discuss the results. A parent may choose to share any evaluation and assessment information done by the child and family agency or by other qualified persons.

Development (CSPD): A State or school plan to train and provide technical assistance for school staff and parents.

Complaint Procedure: A formal complaint filed with the State board of Education if a district violates a legal duty or fails to follow a requirement under the Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA).

Cumulative File: The records maintained by the local school district for any child enrolled in school. The file may contain evaluations and information about a child’s disability and placement. It also contains grades and the results of standardized assessments. Parents have  the right to inspect these files at any time.

Developmental Disability (DD): Any physical or mental condition that begins before the age of 18 years, causes the child to acquire skills at a slower rate than his/her peers, is expected to continue indefinitely, and impairs the child’s ability to function in society.

Disability: Physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.

Due Process: The procedures that parents can use to disagree with the decisions of school district officials concerning special education. The parent is informed of this right by written notice, which describes the options of a preliminary resolution session, a formal hearing, and appeals.

Officer: The trained and

Due Process Hearing: A legal proceeding, similar to a court proceeding where a hearing officer is presented evidence by disagreeing parties. A verbatim record is taken of the proceedings, and a hearing officer writes a decision that may be appealed to the State education agency, and if desired, to a civil court.

Due Process Hearing Officer: The trained and neutral individual who conducts the due process hearing.

Dyslexia: A learning disability in which the child has difficulty with reading due to difficulty distinguishing written symbols. For example, transposing letters and words such as reading ―top‖ as ―pot.‖

Dyspraxia: Difficulty with planning and performing coordinated movements although there is no apparent damage to muscles.

Early Intervention: Programs for developmentally delayed infants and toddlers through 35 months of age; designed to help prevent problems as the child matures.

Emotional Disturbance (ED): A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance.

A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors;

B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers; C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;

D) A tendency to develop general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

Emotional Disturbances (SED); term used to describe a diagnosable mental, behavioral or emotional disorder that lasts for a significant duration that meets the criteria within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Evaluation: The process used to determine if a child has a disability and if special education is needed. The evaluation looks at how the child learns, the kinds of instruction that would be successful, and the kinds of instruction that have been tried and have not resulted in success.

Evaluation Report (ER): The report that is compiled and written by the evaluation team (which includes parents) following an evaluation. It describes all of the information gathered from the team members, including the results of assessment. From the report, the evaluation team determines the student’s eligibility and need for special education programs.

Evaluation Team: A team of educators, other professional individuals, and the child’s parents that reviews all formal testing of a child and all other evaluation material. The evaluation team must issue a written report stating if the child is a child with a disability who needs special education and making sure those services are provided.

Extended School Year (ESY): The delivery of special education and related services during the summer vacation or other extended periods when school is not in session. The purpose for ESY is to prevent a child with a disability from losing previously learned skills. The IEP team must consider the need for Extended School Year at each meeting and must describe those services specifically with goals and objectives. Not all special education students require an extended school year. Extended school year services must be individually developed to meet the child’s unique needs. suggestions about the programs and services needed.

Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA): A federal law that protects the privacy and transfer of student education records.

Fidelity: The unfailing fulfillment of one’s duties and obligations and strict adherence to vows or promises. Fidelity means to implement a program as it was intended; to ensure that all services are delivered correctly (e.g., that a reading program is implemented correctly).

Focused Monitoring: A monitoring approach that examines those requirements most closely relating to improving results for children with disabilities and those States most in need of support to improve compliance and performance.

Gifted and Talented: students have intellectual abilities significantly above average.

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): A program of education and related services for a child with a disability that is designed to meet the child’s special education needs. Appropriate services are those that allow the child to make meaningful progress in the educational setting. FAPE is provided without charge to parents.

Functional Behaviors: Behaviors (basic skills, such as meal-time skills) the child has mastered, or needs to master, in order to get along as independently as possible in society.

Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA): A process that examines why a child behaves the way he or she does given the nature of the child and what is happening in the environment. It is a process for collecting data to determine the possible causes of problem behaviors and to identify strategies to address the behaviors.

Gifted & Talented (GT): Those students with above average intellectual abilities.

Head Start Program: A federal program started in 1965 aimed at providing a comprehensive preschool program for children ages 3-5 from lower income families.

Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPAA): Federal law that outlines the confidentiality and protection of medical records

Home/Hospital Instruction: Students with verified medical conditions, which prevent them from attending school, may receive services on a temporary basis in the home or hospital with a physician’s referral.

Inclusion: Term used to describe services that place students with disabilities in general education classrooms with appropriate support services. Student may receive instruction from both a general education teacher and a special education teacher.

Individualized Education Program (IEP): The plan written by the IEP team (including parents) that specifi­cally describes the programs and services necessary for a free appropriate public education(FAPE) for the child with a disability. An IEP (Individualized Education Plan) must be completed within 30 days after your meeting for the Evaluation Report (ER).  An IEP (Individualized Education Plan) is an individualized plan created just for your child. The IEP (Individualized Education Plan) creates an opportunity for teachers, parents, school administrators, related services personnel and students (when appropriate) to work together to help your child and meet his/hers educational needs. The IEP (Individualized Education Plan) guides the delivery of special education supports and services for your son or daughter. The IEP must be put in place within 10 days of your IEP (Individualized Education Plan) meeting.

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): A program of education and related services for a child with a disability that is designed to meet the child’s special education needs. Appropriate services are those that allow the child to make meaningful progress in the educational setting. FAPE is provided without charge to parents.

Functional Behaviors: Behaviors (basic skills, such as meal-time skills) the child has mastered, or needs to master, in order to get along as independently as possible in society.

Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA): A process that examines why a child behaves the way he or she does given the nature of the child and what is happening in the environment. It is a process for collecting data to determine the possible causes of problem behaviors and to identify strategies to address the behaviors.

Gifted & Talented (GT): Those students with above average intellectual abilities.

Head Start Program: A federal program started in 1965 aimed at providing a comprehensive preschool program for children ages 3-5 from lower income families.

Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPAA): Federal law that outlines the confidentiality and protection of medical records

Home/Hospital Instruction: Students with verified medical conditions, which prevent them from attending school, may receive services on a temporary basis in the home or hospital with a physician’s referral.

Inclusion: Term used to describe services that place students with disabilities in general education classrooms with appropriate support services. Student may receive instruction from both a general education teacher and a special education teacher.

Individualized Education Program (IEP): The plan written by the IEP team (including parents) that specifi­cally describes the programs and services necessary for a free appropriate public education(FAPE) for the child with a disability. An IEP (Individualized Education Plan) must be completed within 30 days after your meeting for the Evaluation Report (ER).  An IEP (Individualized Education Plan) is an individualized plan created just for your child. The IEP (Individualized Education Plan) creates an opportunity for teachers, parents, school administrators, related services personnel and students (when appropriate) to work together to help your child and meet his/hers educational needs. The IEP (Individualized Education Plan) guides the delivery of special education supports and services for your son or daughter. The IEP must be put in place within 10 days of your IEP (Individualized Education Plan) meeting.

Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE):  A school district is required by law to conduct assessments for students who may be eligible for special education. If the parent disagrees with the results of a school district’s evaluation conducted on their child, they have the right to request an independent educational evaluation. The district must provide parents with information about how to obtain an IEE. An independent educational evaluation means an evaluation conducted by a qualified examiner who is not employed by the school district. Public expense means the school district pays for the full costs of the evaluation and that it is provided at no cost to the parent.

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP): A process of providing early intervention services for children ages 0-3 with special needs. Family based needs are indentified and a written plan is developed and reviewed periodically.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004): The federal law that governs the provision of special education services and the rights of parents of a child with a disability.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ): The score of an intelligence test that is a form of psychological testing of an individual’s capacity to learn and deal effectively with his/her environment.

Learning Disability (LD): A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, or spell or to do mathematical calculations.

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): Students eligible for special education will be educated to the maximum extent appropriate with students who are not disabled.

Limited English Proficiency (LEP): Children whose primary language is other than English.

Local Education Agency (LEA): The public schools operating in accordance with statutes, regulations, and policies of the State Department of Education.

Mainstreaming: Term used to describe the integration of children with special needs into regular classrooms for part of the school day. The remainder of the day is in a special education class.

Manifestation Determination:  Within 10 school days of any decision to change the placement of a child with a disability because of violation of school code, the IEP team must review all relevant information in the student’s file to determine if the conduct in question was caused by the child’s disability or if the conduct was a direct result of the school district’s failure to implement the child’s IEP.

Modifications: Change or alterations to what is being measured or taught. Modifications create a different standard for children whose disabilities require more intense adjustments. Modifications are also typically included in the IEP. (See accommodations.)

Multiple Disabilities:  An IEP team term used to define a combination of disabilities that causes severe educational needs that require multiple special education programs such as Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and blindness.

Music Therapy: A therapeutic service to meet recreational or educational goals. Music therapy includes playing instruments, moving to music, singing, and listening to music. It is used in a variety of applications in schools, hospitals, and private settings through both individual and group approaches, often in conjunction with other types of therapy. Both music education and music therapy contribute to special education by promoting learning and self-growth through enjoyable activities.

Natural Environment: The natural or everyday settings for your child. These are places where the child would be if they didn’t have a special developmental concern. It is where all children would be (for example, home, childcare, parks, etc.)

Notice of Recommended Educational Placement (NOREP): The notice given to parents that summarizes the recommendations of the school for the child’s educational program, as well as other actions.

Occupational Therapist (OT): A professional who provides therapy services based on engagement in meaningful activities of daily life such as self-care skills, education, recreation, work or social interaction.

Office for Civil Rights (OCR): The Office for Civil Rights enforces several federal civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination in programs or activities that receive federal financial assistance from the Department of Education.

Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP): Dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing oversight, leadership, and financial support to assist States and local districts. OSEP administers the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Children who exhibit defiant and anti-social behaviors over a long period of time and environment.

Orientation and Mobility (O&M): Services provided to the blind or visually impaired by qualified personnel to enable a child to safely move in school and other environments.

Orthopedic Impairment (OI): Any orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

Other Health Impaired (OHI): An educational classification that describes students who have chronic or acute health problems that cause limited strength, vitality, or alertness that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

Paraprofessional: a special education professional that works side by side a special education teacher to provide appropriate and meaningful instruction to students with special needs. A paraprofessional might be called a paraeducator, an educational aide, an instructional aide, an instructional assistant, or a teacher’s aide depending on the school district, charter school, or intermediate unit where he/she works.

Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA): is designed for students with severe disabilities who are unable to participate meaningfully in the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA), even with accommodations. The PASA consists of a series of on-demand performance items that require the use of reading and math skills.

Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA): is a standards-based criterion-referenced assessment used to measure student attainment of Pennsylvania’s academic standards while also determining the degree to which school programs enable students to attain proficiency of the standards.

Parent: A birth parent, adoptive parent, surrogate parent, or foster parent who has been assigned educational decision-making rights. The term may also apply to an individual acting in the place of a birth or adoptive parent (including grandparent or other relative) with whom the child lives and who has educational decision-making rights, or an individual who is legally responsible for the child.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD): Refers to the overall category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders that includes autism, Rett Syndrome, Asperger’s syndrome, PDD-NOS, and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

Physical Therapist (PT): A professional who is devoted to improving a person’s physical abilities through activities that strengthen muscular control and motor coordination.

Preschool Special Education: An educational program that is designed to meet the unique developmental needs of an individual child with a disability who is three, four, or five years of age. It is a child-focused educational effort. Sometimes referred to Section 619 of the law.

Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAFFP): Statements written in the IEP that accurately describe the student’s strengths, weaknesses, and learning styles.

Prior Written Notice (PWN): Must inform parents of their rights. It is a form that the school must use to tell parents why they’re doing what they’re doing or why they’re not doing what they’re not doing—they must tell parents in writing.

Recoupment:  refers to a child’s ability to recover, in a reasonable time, critical skills that are lost following an extended break in the school year (e.g., summer vacation). Recoupment is a critical factor in determining the need for extended school year services.

Regression: refers to the loss of critical skills within an extended break in the school year (e.g., summer vacation). Regression is a critical factor in determining the need for extended school year services.

Reevaluation: a series of tests and observations performed by a multidisciplinary team to find out if a child with a disability continues to require special education and related services. Reevaluations for children not diagnosed with mental retardation (MR(ID)) are performed every three years and may be waived by parents. Reevaluations for children with MR(ID) diagnoses are performed every two years and cannot be waived.

Related Services: Services necessary to provide specially-designed instruction to ensure the child benefits from the special education programs. Examples are special trans­portation, counseling, school health services, and physical therapy.

Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtII): is a comprehensive, multi-tierd, and standards-aligned approach that enables early identification and intervening for children at academic of behavioral risk.

Resource Specialists: Provide instructional planning and support and direct services to students who needs have been identified in an IEP and are assigned to general education classrooms for the majority of their school day.

School-Based Behavioral Health (SBBH): partnership is one established between a school entity and a behavioral health provider to deliver behavioral health services within the school environment to children needing assistance.

Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS): is an approach comprised of intervention practices and organizational systems for establishing the social culture, learning and teaching environment, and individual behavior supports needed for students to achieve academic and social success.

School Psychologist: Assist in the identification of intellectual, social and emotional needs of students. They provide consultation and support to families and staff regarding behavior and conditions related to learning. They plan programs to meet the special needs of children and often serve as facilitator during an IEP meeting. They can also provide the testing to a student for evaluation purposes.

Screening: The process of looking at a child’s development to find out if there are any areas of concern. It is used to recommend children for more in-depth evaluation.

Secondary Transition Services: Specific planning in school that helps to prepare students with disabilities to participate more effectively in higher education or job training, community participation, independent living, continuing and adult education, and employment when they leave school.   

Section 504 Coordinator: A school employing 15 or more persons must assign a person to coordinate compliance with Section 504 regulations. It is recommended that all school districts appoint a 504 coordinator. It is recommended that the same individual serve as the Title VI, Title IV, and

Self-stimulation: Often referred to as stimming, these are abnormal behaviors, such as head banging, watching the fingers wiggle, or rocking side to side, that interfere with the child’s ability to ―sit still‖ and pay attention or to participate in meaningful activity.

 Sensory Integration Disorder (SID or SI): Also known as Sensory Integration Dysfunction—The inability to process information received through the senses, causing problems with learning, development, and behavior.

Sensory Integration Treatment (SI): A technique of occupational therapy that provides playful, meaningful activities that enhance an individual’s sensory intake and lead to more adaptive functioning in daily life.

Short-Term Objectives: break down annual IEP goals into small, measurable steps. These may not be included in all IEPs but must be included in IEPs of students who take the PASA.

Special Education: An educational program individually designed to meet the unique education needs for a child with a disability. A special education professional is directly involved as either a consultant or a provider of services.

Specially-Designed Instruction: Adapting the content, methods, or delivery of the instruction as is appropriate based on the unique needs of the child with a disability.

Specific Learning Disability (SLD): A disorder that affects the ability to listen, think, speak, read, spell, or do mathematical calculations.

Speech and Language (SL) Disorders: Problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function. These delays and disorders range from simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language or use the oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding. Some causes of speech and language disorders include hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, drug abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse. Frequently, however, the cause is unknown.

Speech Language Pathologist (SLP): A trained therapist who provides treatment to help a person develop or improve articulation, communication skills, and oral-motor skills. Also helps children with speech errors and/or those with difficulties in language patterns.

Standards:  refer to the state academic standards, which are benchmark measures that define what students should know and be able to do at specified grade levels beginning in grade three. The standards are state regulations and must be used as the basis for curriculum and instruction in all Pa. public schools.

State Board of Education: Determines public school and vocational education policy and manages and directs all public schools under provisions of applicable laws.

State Department of Education: Oversees all aspects of education in the State.

State Special Education Advisory Panel (SEAP):  An advisory panel required by federal law in each State for the purpose of providing policy guidance with respect to special education and related services for children with disabilities in the State.

Supplementary Aids and Services (SaS): Aids, services, and other supports provided in general education classes or other education-related settings to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.

Tactile Defensiveness: An abnormal sensitivity to touch indicated by avoidance or rejection of touching and handling. The child who has tactile defensiveness may resist touching or being touched by something that is wet, that is an unusual texture, or that is an unfamiliar temperature or pressure.

Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD/TTY): An assistive technology device attached to a telephone to enable individuals who are deaf to communicate with others.

Therapy: A treatment for certain physical or psychological conditions. The most common forms of therapy provided through early intervention and special education include occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech/ language therapy.

Transition: The movement from one service, location, or program to another. Young children with disabilities transition at age three from early intervention to preschool special education services or to other community settings and services (early intervention and special education). Adolescents transition from school to adult services. The age to begin planning for transition on Pennsylvania is age 14.

Transportation: A related service. If it is determined that the child needs this service to benefit from their education, the school district must provide the transportation, contract with another agency, or contract with the parents to bring their child to school. Transportation could mean round trip, home to school and school to home, services.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Physical damage to the brain that could result in physical, behavioral, or mental changes depending on which area of the brain is injured. TBI could impact a student’s education; special education services might be needed.

United States Department of Education (USDE): Provides guidance, fiscal support, and technical assistance to the States.

Universal Design for Learning (UDL): is an approach to creating instructional materials and activities that are accessible to all, rather than simply adapting existing curricula and materials to provide access for persons with disabilities. UDL allows for multiple means of representation, expression, and engagement.

Visual Impairment (VI): impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

Wraparound Services: are community mental health services that are prescribed by physicians to be provided in home and school settings. Services are based on medical necessity criteria (MNC) and funded through Medical Assistance. Three components can be provided in almost any combination – behavior specialist consultation (BSC), mobile therapy (MT), and therapeutic staffs support (TSS).

Acknowledgements:

Educational law Center, Philadelphia, Right to Special Education

PATTAN, Understanding the language of Special Education

Understandingspecialeducation.com